Saltar al contenido

Gramática: Voz Pasiva Avanzada

Advanced Grammar: complex passives

Gramática: Voz Pasiva Avanzada

En el nivel C1 necesitas saber más que la pasiva básica en todos los tiempos verbales, así que ha llegado el momento de ver cómo utilizar varias formas de la voz pasiva avanzada. Reconocer y saber utilizar estas formas más complejas te ayudará a obtener buenos resultados en el examen Advanced Aptis, sobre todo en las tareas de expresión escrita.

Vamos a empezar leyendo algunas pasivas complejas en el contexto de un ensayo discursivo (una tarea típica en el componente escrito de muchos exámenes, como el Cambridge Advanced y el Trinity ISE III, entre otros).

Voz pasiva avanzada en contexto

Lee este ensayo sobre la naturaleza y la crianza y haz los ejercicios siguientes.

Nature or Nurture?

Nature versus nurture is an age-old debate that explores the origins of human behaviour. It looks at whether our traits and tendencies are primarily influenced by genetics (nature), or by our environment and upbringing (nurture). While both factors undoubtedly play significant roles in shaping who we are, the extent to which each contributes remains a subject of intense discussion.

On one hand, proponents of the nature argument emphasise the importance of genetics in determining various aspects of our identity. They argue that traits such as intelligence and personality are largely hereditary. Specific regions of the brain have indeed been shown to play a role in aspects of personality such as emotional processing, decision-making and impulse control.

On the other hand, those in favour of nurture claim that our surroundings and experiences have a profound impact on our development, and give great importance to upbringing, social interactions, education, and cultural influences. They point out that children who were brought up in supportive, stimulating environments tend to exhibit higher levels of academic achievement and emotional well-being than those raised in disadvantaged circumstances.

An extreme set of such circumstances is the case of feral children: those who have been deprived of human contact and raised by animals during their formative years. People have always been fascinated by stories of such children. Public imagination was fired by Rice Burroughs’ Tarzan of the Apes stories, and since then there have been various accounts of children being brought up by monkeys. One such example is Ugandan-born John Ssebunya, who disappeared at the age of four and was taken in by a troop of monkeys. Although they didn’t exactly look after him, they did let him stay, and responded aggressively when John was taken away, throwing stones at his rescuers.

Nevertheless, other animals have played a more active role in bringing up children. Kipling’s character ‘Mowgli’ was based on a true story about a boy raised by wolves, and more recently two girls of eight and 18 months old were also discovered living with a pack of wolves. These girls had acute senses of sight, hearing and smell, and are believed to have been fed only on raw meat. A similar case is that of three-month-old Andrei Tolstyk, who was abandoned by his parents in a remote area of Siberia with only the family guard-dog as a surrogate parent. On being discovered seven years later, Andrei was reported to have many doglike traits; he had very strong teeth, sniffed his food before eating it, and was afraid of people. In fact, all these children seemed to have taken on the traits of the animal that had ‘adopted’ them.

What can this evidence tell us? Feral children don’t even identify as human; they cannot talk, walk, socialise, or understand other people’s needs. This suggests that our upbringing is responsible for our ability to use language, to think and reason. However, this does not appear to be the case with personality. Research has shown that identical twins who have been separated at birth and raised in different environments are still far more alike than two randomly-chosen people, which points to character being affected more by genes than by upbringing.

Ultimately, it can only be concluded that it is a combination of factors during early childhood that determines the person we later become. By understanding the intricate relationship between nature and nurture, and by recognising the multifaceted influences on human development, perhaps we will be able to adopt more holistic approaches to supporting individuals in reaching their full potential.

 

Vocabulario

Busca sinónimos de estas palabras en el texto:

characteristics

argue

excited

sharp

substitute (n)

(Respuestas al final de la página)

Enfoque gramátical

Vuelve a leer el texto y concéntrate en el uso de la pasiva. Verás que hay muchos tiempos y formas diferentes (encontrarás una lista en las respuestas).

Empecemos por volver a lo básico. Después veremos cómo formar pasivas más complejas.

Entonces, ¿cuándo utilizamos la voz pasiva?

Lo utilizamos cuando queremos centrar la atención en la persona o cosa afectada por la acción. Así, en este ejemplo del texto, queremos centrarnos más en Andrei que en sus padres:

… he was abandoned by his parents

[Si queremos decir quién o qué llevó a cabo la acción, utilizamos siempre la preposición by]

En el siguiente ejemplo no sabemos quién llevó a cabo la acción, así que de nuevo, el pasivo es una opción más natural. Y de nuevo, los niños más importante para nosotros que quién los crió:

… children who were brought up in supportive, stimulating environments

También usamos la pasiva cuando no queremos decir quién lo hizo. Otro ámbito en el que se suele utilizar la pasiva es para describir procesos.

Para un desglose gramatical de las pasivas básicas, vea Gramática: La Voz Pasiva.

Cómo utilizar la voz pasiva avanzada

Observa estos ejemplos del texto de la voz pasiva avanzada y el desglose gramatical de cada forma:

Specific regions of the brain have been shown to play a role in …

subject + passive verb + to + infinitive

Andrei was reported to have many doglike traits

subject + passive verb + to + infinitive

These girls are believed to have been fed only on raw meat

subject + passive verb + to + passive perfect infinitive

Ultimately, it can only be concluded that it is a combination of factors …

it + passive verb + that + clause

Todos estos ejemplos son informes con verbos pasivos. Los tres primeros ejemplos también pueden expresarse como en el cuarto (it + passive verb + that + clause):

Specific regions of the brain have been shown to play a role It has been shown that specific regions of the brain play a role

Andrei was reported to have many doglike traits → It was reported that Andrei had many dog-like traits

These girls are believed to have been fed only on raw meat → It is believed that these girls were fed on …

Práctica de la voz pasiva avanzada

Escribe dos frases impersonales correspondientes (si es posible) a partir de estas informaciones, utilizando it + passive verb + that + clause en una, y subject + passive verb + to + infinitive en la otra.

En algunos casos, el segundo patrón no es posible.

  1. We know that feral children have problems adjusting to a normal social life.
  2. We think they make more progress if they receive specialised care.
  3. We don’t recommend putting them under pressure.
  4. We believe younger feral children can usually learn to speak, given time.
  5. We have decided to publish a research paper on the subject.
  6. We don’t know when it will be published.

Pasos siguientes

Suscríbete a nuestro canal de YouTube y haz clic en la campana para recibir notificaciones cuando subamos un nuevo vídeo. Y no olvides suscribirte a nuestro boletín aquí para recibir consejos sobre exámenes e información sobre cuándo añadimos nuevos posts.

También encontrarás mucha más práctica sobre todos los aspectos de los exámenes Aptis en nuestra Guía.

RESPUESTAS:

Vocabulario:

characteristics = traits,

argue = claim

excited = fired

sharp = acute

substitute = surrogate

 

Ejemplos de voz pasiva (en negrita):

… whether our traits and tendencies are primarily influenced by genetics

Specific regions of the brain have indeed been shown to play a role in aspects of personality

… children who were brought up in supportive …

those [who were] raised in disadvantaged circumstances

…those who have been deprived of human contact and raised by animals

People have always been fascinated by stories

Public imagination was fired by Rice Burroughs

other accounts of children being brought up by monkeys.

was taken in by a troop of monkeys

when John was taken away

‘Mowgli’ was based on a true story

… two young girls were also discovered living with wolves

… and are believed to have been fed only on raw meat

Andrei Tolstyk, who was abandoned by his parents in a remote area of Siberia

On being discovered seven years later, Andrei was reported to have many doglike traits

Research has shown that identical twins who have been separated at birth …

character being affected more by genes than by upbringing.

Ultimately, it can only be concluded that

 

Práctica gramatical

  1. It is known that feral children have problems adjusting to a normal social life / Feral children are known have problems adjusting to a normal social life
  2. It is thought that more progress is made if they receive specialised care / More progress is though to be made if they receive specialised care
  3. It is not recommended to put them under pressure
  4. It is believed that younger feral children can usually learn to speak, given time / Younger feral children are believed to be able to learn to speak, given time
  5. It has been decided to publish a research paper on the subject
  6. It is not known when it will be published

Deja una respuesta

Tu dirección de correo electrónico no será publicada. Los campos obligatorios están marcados con *

Este sitio usa Akismet para reducir el spam. Aprende cómo se procesan los datos de tus comentarios.